Pain is an unpleasant sensation resulting from the intricate interplay between sensory and cognitive mechanisms. Chronic pain, resulting from disease or injury, affects nearly every fifth person in the Western world, constituting an enormous burden for the individual and society.
Sensitization of pain signalling systems is a key feature of chronic pain and results in normally non-painful stimuli eliciting pain. Such sensory changes can occur not just at the sites of injury, but insurrounding normal tissues. This and other observations suggest that sensitization occurs within the CNS as well as within nociceptors terminals.
Here we consider the consequences of noxious stimulus applied to our unfortunate builder's hand, from sensory transduction to pain perception. We describe the structural and functional elements present at different levels of the nociceptive system, as well as some of the changes occurring in chronic pain states. Although our poster highlights a flow of information from the periphery to the CNS, it should be noted that higher brain centres exert both inhibitory and facilitatory controls on lower ones. The challenge for the next decade will be to effectively translate this knowledge into the development of novel analgesic agents for better pain relief.